By Beth Ann Malow
As people in the U.S. prepare to set their clocks ahead one hour on Sunday, March 12, 2023, I find myself bracing for the annual ritual of media stories about the disruptions to daily routines caused by switching from standard time to daylight saving time.
About one-third of Americans say they don’t look forward to these twice-yearly time changes. And nearly two-thirds would like to eliminate them completely, compared to 21% who aren’t sure and 16% who would like to keep moving their clocks back and forth.
But the effects go beyond simple inconvenience. Researchers are discovering that “springing ahead” each March is connected with serious negative health effects, including an uptick in heart attacks and teen sleep deprivation. In contrast, the fall transition back to standard time is not associated with these health effects, as my co-authors and I noted in a 2020 commentary.
I’ve studied the pros and cons of these twice-annual rituals for more than five years as a professor of neurology and pediatrics and the director of Vanderbilt University Medical Center’s sleep division. It’s become clear to me and many of my colleagues that the transition to daylight saving time each spring affects health immediately after the clock change and also for the nearly eight months that Americans remain on daylight saving time.
The strong case for permanent standard time
Americans are split on whether they prefer permanent daylight saving time or permanent standard time.
However, the two time shifts – jolting as they may be – are not equal. Standard time most closely approximates natural light, with the sun directly overhead at or near noon. In contrast, during daylight saving time from March until November, the clock change resulting from daylight saving time causes natural light to be present one hour later in the morning and one hour later in the evening according to clock time.
Morning light is essential for helping to set the body’s natural rhythms: It wakes us up and improves alertness. Morning light also boosts mood – light boxes simulating natural light are prescribed for morning use to treat seasonal affective disorder.
Although the exact reasons why light activates us and benefits our mood are not yet known, this may be due to light’s effects on increasing levels of cortisol, a hormone that modulates the stress response or the effect of light on the amygdala, a part of the brain involved in emotions.
Adolescents also may be chronically sleep deprived due to school, sports and social activities. For instance, many children start school around 8 a.m. or earlier. This means that during daylight saving time, many young people get up and travel to school in pitch darkness.
The body of evidence makes a good case for adopting permanent standard time nationwide, as I testified at a March 2022 Congressional hearing and argued in a recent position statement for the Sleep Research Society. The American Medical Association recently called for permanent standard time. And in late 2022, Mexico adopted permanent standard time,, citing benefits to health, productivity and energy savings.
The biggest advantage of daylight saving time is that it provides an extra hour of light in the late afternoon or evening, depending on time of year, for sports, shopping or eating outside. However, exposure to light later into the evening for almost eight months during daylight saving time comes at a price. This extended evening light delays the brain’s release of melatonin, the hormone that promotes drowsiness, which in turn interferes with sleep and causes us to sleep less overall.
Because puberty also causes melatonin to be released later at night, meaning that teenagers have a delay in the natural signal that helps them fall asleep, adolescents are particularly susceptible to sleep problems from the extended evening light. This shift in melatonin during puberty lasts into our 20s.
The ‘western edge’ effect
Geography can also make a difference in how daylight saving time affects people. One study showed that people living on the western edge of a time zone, who get light later in the morning and later in the evening, got less sleep than their counterparts on the eastern edge of a time zone.
This study found that western-edge residents had higher rates of obesity, diabetes, heart disease and breast cancer, as well as lower per capita income and higher health care costs. Other research has found that rates of certain other cancers are higher on the western edge of a time zone.
Scientists believe that these health problems may result from a combination of chronic sleep deprivation and “circadian misalignment.” Circadian misalignment refers to a mismatch in timing between our biological rhythms and the outside world. In other words, the timing of daily work, school or sleep routines is based on the clock, rather than on the sun’s rise and set.
A brief history of daylight saving time
Congress instituted year-round daylight saving time during World War I and World War II, and once again during the energy crisis of the early 1970s.
The idea was that having extra light later into the afternoon would save energy by decreasing the need for electric lighting. This idea has since been proved largely inaccurate, as heating needs may increase in the morning in the winter, while air conditioning needs can also increase in the late afternoon in the summer.
Another pro-daylight saving argument has been that crime rates drop with more light at the end of the day. While this has been proved true, the change is very small, and the health effects appear to outweigh the benefits to society from lower rates of crime.
After World War II, designating the start and end dates for daylight saving time fell to state governments. Because this created many railroad scheduling and safety problems, however, Congress passed the Uniform Time Act in 1966. This law set the nationwide dates of daylight saving time from the last Sunday in April until the last Sunday in October. In 2007, Congress amended the act to expand the period in which daylight saving time is in effect from the second Sunday in March to the first Sunday in November – dates that remain in effect today.
The Uniform Time Act allows states and territories to opt out of daylight saving time, however. Arizona and Hawaii are on permanent standard time, along with Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Northern Mariana Islands, Guam and American Samoa.
Now, many other states are considering whether to stop falling back and springing ahead. Several U.S. states have legislation and resolutions under consideration to support permanent standard time, while many others have been or are considering permanent daylight saving time. Legislation and resolutions for permanent standard time have increased from 15% in 2021 to 31% in 2023.
In March 2022, the U.S. Senate passed the Sunshine Protection Act in a bid to make daylight saving time permanent. But the House did not move forward with this legislation. Florida Sen. Marco Rubio reintroduced the bill on March 1, 2023.
The spike in activity among states seeking to break from these twice-yearly changes reflects how more people are recognizing the downsides of this practice. Now, it’s up to legislators to decide whether we end the time shift altogether, and to choose permanent standard or daylight saving time.
This is an updated version of an article originally published on March 10, 2022.
Beth Ann Malow is Professor of Neurology and Pediatrics at Vanderbilt University.
The Conversation arose out of deep-seated concerns for the fading quality of our public discourse and recognition of the vital role that academic experts could play in the public arena. Information has always been essential to democracy. It’s a societal good, like clean water. But many now find it difficult to put their trust in the media and experts who have spent years researching a topic. Instead, they listen to those who have the loudest voices. Those uninformed views are amplified by social media networks that reward those who spark outrage instead of insight or thoughtful discussion. The Conversation seeks to be part of the solution to this problem, to raise up the voices of true experts and to make their knowledge available to everyone. The Conversation publishes nightly at 9 p.m. on FlaglerLive.
Dennis C Rathsam says
The changing of the clocks, has been around for a long time. Its really not that big of a deal. It doesnt bother me.
Why don’t they fix the problem, the “second” is a flawed mathematical rounding error to measure the universe with. Here in Palm Coast, we get 10-14+ hours every day of sunlight throughout the calendar year. The “True Ups” are the Standard & DST clock resets. Every 4 years we still have to have Feb 29th too for that method of true up. We’ve been measuring time wrong throughout the existence of mankind, whether it’s a grain of sand, a sun dial, quartz watches or an atomic clock. When the base unit of time measurement is flawed, the longer measures of time are just going to be exacerbated by the same accumulations of rounding errors. That’s not unhealthy, it’s just the best anyone can do in a lifetime. beyond the inconveniences of setting all the clocks one has to an hour difference, that’s about as unhealthy as it gets. And it doesn’t matter if you reset the clock at 2 AM Sunday AM or whether you do it before you have to be anywhere on Monday, it’s no more unhealthy than anything else you make the call of doing on your own terms.
A Concerned Observer says
Back in 1975, I spent 9-Days driving from Massachusetts to Alaska. I didn’t have a tape player in my pickup, so I listened to several radio stations along the way. (Back then, the Alcan Highway was 1,200 miles of gravel road with widely varying degrees of maintenance throughout it’s length.) The news was saturated with the notice that the US was definitely going to convert to the metric system for all measurements. The explanation was that it was more accurate and, by far, the rest of the world’s standard. Everything from road signs to car speedometers, cookbooks to weather forecasts would have to be converted. Well, here it is, 48-years later and nothing happened. Imagine my shock!
Now we are hearing about Daylight Savings Time. I’ve heard and read similar news stories over recent years that the practice of biannual time change was no longer relevant and needed to go away for many reasons. This practice is far more widespread throughout the world than our SAE measurement system but it too is not the world standard. Over 70 countries worldwide use Daylight Saving Time with beginning and end dates varying from one country to another. To the confusion of many drivers on Interstate 90, it is not a universal practice within the US, or even within a state! Go to https://www.indystar.com/story/news/2019/03/08/why-indiana-observes-daylight-saving-time-statewide/3092875002/ to read about Indiana’s tumultuous attempts to resolve that state’s handling of daylight savings time. Jumping to the present, I heard that it was about to finally change in the US this year. Looking back at history, I won’t hold my breath…