By Alan Jenn
One big question keeps surfacing after the Biden administration announced plans to raise auto standards so sharply they would likely boost electric vehicle production to 67% of all new passenger vehicle sales in under a decade: Can automakers pull that off?
The proposal would require a huge change in production and consumer choice. To put it in perspective, in 2022 about 6% of U.S. passenger vehicle sales were all-electric.
I study the electric vehicle industry and policy. Here’s why I think the Environmental Protection Agency’s plan can succeed.
Automakers have met tough targets before
Automakers typically push back against tougher rules and often lobby to get standards relaxed. However, U.S. car companies have also shown that they can meet ambitious goals.
When California began requiring that car companies sell a certain percentage of zero-emissions vehicles, its initial target translated to about 15% of all new car sales by 2025. Automakers quickly exceeded that goal. By 2022, nearly 19% of California’s new light-duty vehicle sales were electric. In response, the rules were ramped up last year to 100% of all new cars by 2035.
U.S. automakers are already ramping up to meet the California rules, as well as aggressive requirements in Europe and China.
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency can’t set quotas for EV sales, but it can require automakers to progressively lower total greenhouse gas emissions from the vehicles they sell. Emission rates are inherently tied to fuel economy – more fuel-efficient vehicles emit less carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas that is warming the planet.
The new federal proposal, which still faces a comments period and could change before being finalized, would set emissions restrictions tight enough that it will effectively result in about two-thirds of new light-duty vehicles sold by 2032 being electric. That’s almost as aggressive as rules in the European Union. A second EPA proposal, also announced April 12, 2023, affects heavy-duty vehicles in the same way, but sets a lower target.
The government is offering lots of incentives
While the proposed rules are strict, the federal government has provided unprecedented support over the last year and a half to help meet demand for EV battery parts and production, computer chips and charging infrastructure.
The Bipartisan Infrastructure Law, in conjunction with 2022’s Inflation Reduction Act, are providing billions of dollars in grants and loans for EV and battery manufacturing, plus tax breaks for EV buyers. The infrastructure law also allocated US$7.5 billion to build a network of EV chargers throughout the country under the National Electric Vehicle Infrastructure program.
In an ideal world, “carrots” like these would be enough to encourage automakers to embrace the technological shift. But the EPA’s new greenhouse gas emissions standards represent the “stick” designed to guarantee the shift happens.
EVs aren’t just luxury anymore
Making EVs affordable will be crucial to success. Tightening fuel economy and greenhouse gas emission standards is known to increase the average price of new vehicles. For now, EVs have a higher sticker price than gasoline vehicles, which is a major barrier to their adoption.
The cost of batteries is one reason EV prices are higher. But there’s another important reason, and it may be changing: the types of electric vehicles being produced.
Many of the current EV models are large or luxury vehicles. Those vehicle classes have higher profit margins, meaning automakers make more money off the sales, which helps them invest in production.
But more entry-level EVs are coming on the market soon. And many of them, such as the Chevrolet Bolt, are already fairly cost competitive with comparable gas cars – and cheaper overall when taking into account lower energy and maintenance costs.
Increasing EV production will bring down costs over time as manufacturing processes improve and sales and competition grow.
In the meantime, the Inflation Reduction Act’s tax credits can help narrow the current price gap between certain EVs and gas vehicles. Buyers can get up to $7,500 for qualifying new electric vehicles.
Investments are already underway
Meeting the EPA’s standards won’t be easy, and the industry will face other challenges. For example, the U.S. needs to train workers in new skills, both for auto production and for charger installation, and it will need to boost renewable energy production to power EVs cleanly.
The ramp-up will also come with costs. Ford announced in early 2023 that its EV division had lost $3 billion in each of the previous two years and would likely lose a similar amount in 2023 as it invested in new production.
But Ford also said it expects to see an 8% profit margin by 2026 and to boost production that year to 2 million electric vehicles. Ford and several other automakers have announced large investments in electric vehicle capabilities. A recent Reuters analysis found that 37 global automakers expected to invest $1.2 trillion in EVs, batteries and materials through 2030.
John Bozzella, CEO of the industry trade group Alliance for Automotive Innovation, said automakers were committed to the EV transition and would work with U.S. regulators, but he also called the EPA plan “aggressive by any measure.” Whether it’s feasible, he said, will depend in part on how the U.S. manages charging infrastructure, supply chains and the resilience of the power grid.
The proposed rules provide clear targets
The aggressive nature of the EPA’s proposed regulation is a major departure from the norm. Efficiency standards have traditionally meant incremental improvements in vehicle technologies, like increasing engine efficiency. The proposed rule likely will be challenged once finalized, and since it isn’t written into law, there’s a chance it could be reversed by future administrations.
But these standards can help companies set goals for the future by providing clear targets. Failing to meet EPA rules can come with tough penalties, up to $45,000 per vehicle per day in some cases. That’s enough to very rapidly put any automaker out of business.
In my view, the updated standards are necessary to ensure that the U.S. can keep pace with EV adoption around the world.
Alan Jenn is Associate Professional Researcher in Transportation at the University of California, Davis.
The Conversation arose out of deep-seated concerns for the fading quality of our public discourse and recognition of the vital role that academic experts could play in the public arena. Information has always been essential to democracy. It’s a societal good, like clean water. But many now find it difficult to put their trust in the media and experts who have spent years researching a topic. Instead, they listen to those who have the loudest voices. Those uninformed views are amplified by social media networks that reward those who spark outrage instead of insight or thoughtful discussion. The Conversation seeks to be part of the solution to this problem, to raise up the voices of true experts and to make their knowledge available to everyone. The Conversation publishes nightly at 9 p.m. on FlaglerLive.
These will never be affordable to the masses. All one needs to see is all of the inflated decades old inventory of ICE vehicles on the roads, in the driveways/garages. Anyone selling an EV for cheap has o be suspicious that like the older ICE vehicles, the suspension, steering, transmission, electric motor, battery pack is in need of replacement. Buyer Beware applies. Would the EV be a pre-Biden era generation junker with obsolete technology like a 10+ year old laptop, smartphone or any other undesirable technology that is no longer supported by OS software even ?
EV? Not for ME... says
I recently took a vacation to the Grand Canyon and Sedona Arizona, flew into Phoenix and rented a car from Turo.com its a site you can rent people’s personal cars, like Air B&B for cars. So there is a much more interesting mix of vehicles you can choose to rent, from 4X4 jeeps to sports cars to Teslas. I saw a deal to rent a guys Tesla, and mentioned what I planned to do that week, he politely declined he said the car likely won’t make that trip as there are very limited EV facilities out in the desert. I rented a little Saturn Sky Turbo instead and thank god the Tesla owner was honest as I did not see a single EV charger once I left the city of Phoenix, I would have been a paperweight on the side of the canyon somewhere. I do not appreciate being pushed into a technology base so clearly in its infancy.
Pierre Tristam says
It’s a little disingenuous to condemn an entire technology that clearly has billions of useful and necessary applications in urban settings, where most of us live and work, based on a single long-distance trip in the desert when the option of ensuring one does not end up being a paperweigh on the side of the road is available. We have all been pushed into fossil-fuel technology, for much longer than necessary, and often at the expense of public transportation, against our will, for decades. It’s nice to see a little balance returning. I would not appreciate being drowned by a rising ocean not far from here.
What if there is an evacuation, Pierre? Miles and miles of cars on the roads, just sitting. And then there is the issue of many cities not having enough electricity available to keep the lights on, such as the entire state of California?
I could go on. We are at least 50 years from even thinking about this.
Pierre Tristam says
We had evacuations in 1998–25 years ago, so yes, considering that something may happen once in a century, we really should just keep burning fossils and forget about the whole EV think. I like history, but not thinking from 50 years ago, not to mention the way Leila can’t go two lines without throwing in some disinformation, like that bit about California. The biggest power news out of the state lately is a utility’s proposal to means-test billing, a great idea. That’ll send the reactionaries up electric poles. But no. The only bulbs dimming anywhere are in outdated thinking.
So you are saying the grid in California never goes down?
Realityof EV says
Pierre I do not think so at all, are you gonna bail my little family out when I am on the side of the road with a dead battery? Of course not. So allow me to do my own research I love Elon Musk! I think Teslas with their Giga press are cool, I just doubt I’ll ever afford one under bidenflation. If you want Tesla You have to have two cars 1 Gas one electric Sorry to burst your bubble but EV is not cool for leaving your town. You could be stranded.
Pierre Tristam says
That’s all as true today as the risks of getting stranded between gas stations was in 1905. But it changed very quickly then, just as it will now. We’re talking about scaling up, which is a technical challenge, not a reason to stall on EVs.
John Bettencourt says
Pierre, scaling up? A prudent business plan would never allow EV on a large scale until power grids / new infrastructure is in place . Additionally, ‘proof of concept’ is needed in test cases. This seems to be the ‘playbook’ not only EV, but other major issues with this administration. They are data centered world full of textbook theorists, but not practitioners or realists.
Furthermore, EV trade off has enabled our historical adversaries to build up their coffer$ , while directing funds to ‘world expansion / power ‘ , NOT for the betterment of Mother Earth . Carbon emission reduction needs to be a Global Initiative for ALL.
Perhaps an introductory alternative might be the Toyota hydrid technology directive @46 MPG for 5 yrs, until we build up grids/ infrastructure? Why inflict pain on Americans with EV a flawed mandate with significants flaws. Shallow thinking..but Cash is king!
Challenging times Pierre.
Tesla has an online trip planner: https://www.tesla.com/trips# According to it, you should have had no problems with either a Tesla Model Y Long Range or Model 3 Long Range.
According to the trip planner, there are 10 locations with destination chargers in Sedona Arizona. There is also the Sedona, AZ Supercharger, at: 7000 AZ-179, Sedona, Arizona 86351
14 Superchargers, available 24/7
Grand Canyon Village has two locations with destination chargers. In nearby Tusayan (6.3 miles), 149 State Route 64, Tusayan, Arizona, there is a AZ Supercharger.
12 Superchargers, available 24/7
No EV for me says
But what do you do when they are taken? for hours? I like gassing up ten minutes Im back on the road . I would never risk a $2500 vacation with such a feeble automobile that requires coal energy to produce the electricity That the automobile requires. The infrastructure is NOT there.
Superchargers are connected to the internet and report their status, including how many chargers are in use and how many are available. The Tesla builtin navigation system directs the driver/car to the appropriate Supercharger. The onscreen display provides an estimate of the remaining charge upon arrival at the charger. If bad weather or road conditions increase the power usage, the navigation system will automatically provide a closer alternative charging station.
Tesla Superchargers (as with other fast charging stations) are more common than people assume, because they are not advertised or usually visible from the road. The one at the Wawa, opposite the Flagler airport, on E. Moody Blvd has 8 chargers on the back side of the station where they are not even visible to drivers at the gasoline pumps.
However, charging at a Supercharger (about 36 cents per kilowatt) is about the same cost as driving a fuel efficient hybrid car. The real savings is that most charging is at home with a rate of 11 to 12 cents per kilowatt. Every morning, I have a car that has plenty of range and I do not have to stop at a gas station. (Disclosure, I bought a Tesla Model Y LR last January after the huge price cut.)
No EV for me... (Yet) says
Thank you Dale for this informative reply, I see clearly that had I decided to rent the EV Tesla, Conceivable I could have made the trip, though I never saw these charging stations, I was in a gas car and wasn’t looking all that hard just out of curiosity wondering what I would have done if not forewarned. But post covid, this was my first vacation and how many precious hours of it does one wish to spend in a crappy gas station parking lot hoping to get a better battery percentage? I paid top dollar on airline fares, hotels rental cars restaurants etc, I can hang out in a shitty gas station in Palm Coast any time. That being said I love the Giga press innovation Musk forwards and I monitor the situation closely its just not there yet for me, to live my life I would need to be affluent enough to own 2 registered cars one EV and one gas and I am not there yet Sir.
I have been wanting to purchase an EV for a few years and have done quite a of research into both full-time EVs and hybrids. Last summer I finally took the plunge and traded in our Subaru for a Lexus hybrid sedan, and I absolutely LOVE it!. Besides getting between 45-48 mpg depending on how much city or highway driving I do, you just cannot go wrong with the quality and reliability of the Toyota/Lexus hybrid technology that has been the gold standard for hybrid vehicles for many years. Initially I was looking at EVs but at the present time the infrastructure for charging options outside of urban areas is still in its infancy and may be another several years before there are sufficient and reliable EV charging stations available throughout the nation’s interstate highway system. Since we live in Florida and have already had to evacuate multiple times for approaching hurricanes, I do not want to be stranded on the highway only a couple hundred miles down the road with a dead battery, or stuck in a line of EVs in one of the limited charging areas waiting for my turn to charge up the EV battery during a statewide evacuation. My non-plug-in hybrid is the best solution for me, allowing the car to recharge the battery as it is being driven. The other real downside right now is the price of hybrids and EVs. As more and more EV and hybrid models become available, prices will need to be more affordable for many consumers, and many more charging stations will need to be constructed if the government’s plan to increase the market share of EVs will ever have a chance to be successful. Then the big concern will be about the nations’ power grid having the capability to provide enough electrical power for all of the homes, businesses AND vehicles on our roadways.
The dude says
As per usual the “get off my lawners” have much to say about this, with little substance.
Nobody’s forcing anybody to buy an EV.
EV’s aren’t for everybody.
Early adopters always pay more and have more issues with new tech. Flat screen tvs might be an apropos example.
The market will bring EV prices down as the infrastructure gets built out and the technology improves.
I’m waiting for longer ranges, and lower pricing myself before I try it.
You may want to read this. https://www.politico.com/news/2023/04/13/fight-over-biden-electric-car-push-00091800
Ray W. says
Good article, Leila. Thank you.
The Dude is still right. No one is forcing anyone to buy EVs. The dispute is about forcing automakers to make conventional vehicles more fuel efficient. This argument hasn’t changed since the 1970’s. Oy vey!
But don’t assume that conventional vehicles aren’t as fuel efficient as they’re ever going to be.
The internal combustion engine has its thermal dynamic limits.
Just an observation.
Ray W. says
I agree wittt your observation that thermal dynamics imposes limits on certain facets of engine development. There are many ways to work within those limits.
Miller Cycle technology, coupled with turbocharging, improves power and fuel efficiency. Improved seal and bearing technology. Transmission improvements. Tire improvements. Greater use of carbon fiber parts. More aluminum and magnesium. Ceramic coatings on critical parts. Overall weight reductions allow for smaller and lighter engines. Higher pressure direct fuel injection. Widespread use of hybrid technology.
Formula 1 engine development never stops, despite thermal dynamic limitations.
Plenty of data available, from my research, you turn a 10 hour trip, into a 20 hour trip for various reasons, with no savings on cost. If we were really worried about the planet, we would be targeting the elites, with all the jets, and sending all the rockets up, just saying…
Not to mention all the container ships crisscrossing the oceans to transport stuff that could and used to be made closer to home. From my experience, I was able to drive from home to visit friends and family in Ohio in about 13-14 hours, 900 miles. My EV will require about 17 hours. So yes, driving an EV will add several hours to a long road trip.
The naysayers are the usual trolls and their relatives. Most, if not all, reject this because: It’s only a good idea if they get credit for it, or they know the residual value of their horse will disappear almost immediately, “I’m not getting in any lifeboat if I can’t bring the ship too!”
Apparently they’re confident that there is plenty of time to wait, or the end times, or growing gill slits, or some other magical thinking will suffice. It kind of figures — they also think natural history is accurately portrayed by the Flintstones cartoon show.
can't believe it says
I’ll buy one, as soon as that senile fool puts his corvette in a crusher. I’m sure the family can come up with enough money. His son just needs to sell one of his highly sought after, highly acclaimed pieces of art work to pay for it. I hear they are really cherished pieces of artwork in China.
For the usual “close minded, backward thinking” naysayers . . . We’ve been enjoying the amazing environment and gas savings of our Toyota Prius hybrid for years now. Here in beautiful Sausalito, CA, where we are delighted to be surrounded by open minded, positive, friendly, educated, kind neighbors, there are by far more Teslas than pick up trucks. NO ONE is having a problem finding a way to charge their batteries!
BTW, our “lights are ON” here in CA, no problem. . . and, that includes the lights in our brains. . . unlike many in our home state of Florida. So incredibly happy we moved from Flagler county to wonderful California!!!
We are to. Enjoy say hi to my Aunt in Temecula if ya get there. She loves it having moved from Orlando 7 years ago.. Loves her little EV but she also has a gas SUV just in case.
Bill C says
I’m all for EV’s, the assumption is they’re good for reducing CO2 emissions. BUT, I see so much energy squandered every day. Go to a hotel, an office building, the movies, or other public spaces, and in summer when it’s 90 degrees out, inside it’s so uncomfortably cold that people are wearing sweaters, some have electric heaters on under their desks. Reverse this in winter when it’s 40 outside and the buildings are 80 degrees, people walking around in short sleeves. So many people leave their parked cars running to keep the AC on while waiting outside for someone who is shopping, even when the outside temp is in the comfortable 70’s. Likewise for trucks that are parked with the engine running for no reason other than the driver is eating lunch. (I’ve seen it countless times.) It’s just a bad habit left over from a previous era when people didn’t know better. But now everyone knows better. There’s no excuse anymore. Conservation is something everyone can start doing TODAY instead of waiting for a decade for EV’s.
Here’s the flaw in the Lithium Ion battery pack chart. The costs are reported to have dropped to $ 153 per kWh. Tesla 3 has a 50-82 kWh battery pack. Obviously, the longer range battery is the 82 kWh battery. That’s $ 7,650-12,546 for the battery pack, that hasn’t been installed. How many years of gasoline is that ? Add the battery pack isn’t even installed, there’s going to be a labor charge for that. Motorists are so tied to the warranty & Tesla repair network for that car. I get the vehicle has a warranty, but when that battery starts to degrade, range will vanish. And like a rental home that needs a new roof, HVAC & whatever else, the original EV owner will dump that vehicle and leave the “Buy As Is” new owner on the hook for a battery pack replacement at the very least. And the house you live in will have to be upgraded to EV recharge station that still takes 10-12 hours to drive it far enough to recharge the battery at what will be a 45 minute plus wait. Does anyone actually think any of the present gas stations aren’t going to charge more for a recharge session ? Because they make good money at the pumps for the gasoline. The Government is going to need to find an alternate revenue source for the gasoline tax revenues they currently are getting. Get ready to be gouged and the inconvenience of it all makes EV’s a non-solution. I can just see anyone’s employer: “Why are you late to work constantly ?, I had to recharge the EV again.”
From PC Magazine, June 29, 2022: “As for their longevity, Tesla says its battery packs are designed to “outlast the vehicle.”
“Tesla itself claims that the Model S and Model X only lose about 10% battery capacity, on average, after 200,000 miles of usage.” https://www.pcmag.com/news/ev-batteries-101-degradation-lifespan-warranties-and-more
Conventional vehicles come with an expensive engine and transmission. Electric vehicles (EVs) have an electric motor or two and no transmission. Instead there is an expensive high voltage battery pack.
Recharging an EV means restoring the charge that was used while driving the previous day. Although much slower, a 120v travel charger might work for some people. That will add between 3 and 5 miles of range for every hour of charging, depending on the EV. If a person drives less than 40 or 50 miles a day, that would be sufficient to recharge the EV overnight. No electrical upgrade to the house would be needed. Every morning the EV would have the charge needed for the day. There would be no reason to be late to work because forgetting to fuel up and encountering an unexpected line at the gas station.
Certainly the road use tax, which is charged per gallon on gasoline and diesel fuel, should be added to the electricity used for EVs.
@Speaks for itself
It is reported that China controls about 80% of the mineable lithium deposits in the world. So, what happens when the U.S. has 50 million electric vehicles on the road and we are out of lithium for new batteries?
Ray W. says
The operative word in Leila’s comment is “controls”, which is different from “buys”, “sells” or “manufactures.”
A quick fact check reveals that China currently purchases 70% of the world’s raw (lithium carbonate equivalent, or LCE) and refined (contained lithium) lithium capacity and sells 70% of the world’s finished lithium products, mostly in the form of liquid state lithium-ion batteries. The United States used to be the world’s biggest producer of “contained lithium”, but we ceded our preeminence in this critical area of manufacturing decades ago. We are down to only one operating LCE mine and we manufacture a negligible amount of contained lithium. Presidents and Congresses for decades have done little to stem the lessening importance of American LCE mining and manufacturing of contained lithium, but American investment in this area is finally expanding. Fault is really hard to place, because we live in a capitalist world. If China can provide finished lithium products to the world at the lowest price, it seems to follow that China would build the infrastructure necessary to supply the world with lithium-based products.
With lithium often being referred to as either white gold or white oil, many nations around the world are responding to China’s dominance in this area by exploring for potential lithium deposits and building the necessary infrastructure to take advantage of what they find, so estimates of known reserves of raw lithium are likely to grow, perhaps in multiples, as lithium is known to be a widely spread-out resource. China’s dominance of this market may lessen over time. Today’s levels of known LCE reserves do not mean that we will run out of LCE, even though we are rapidly expanding our reliance on various electric means of powering the world’s economies.
Outside of what is called the Lithium Triangle (Argentina, Bolivia, Chile), which holds the majority of the world’s known raw lithium reserves, the United States holds the world’s fourth largest known raw lithium reserves.
In 2020, it was estimated that Bolivia held 21 million tons of LCE; Argentian, 17 million tons; Chile; 9 million tons; U.S., 6.8 million tons; Australia, 6.3 million tons; and, China, 4.5 million tons.
In 2023, it is projected that the world will extract 964k tons of LCE. In 2025, 1.5 million tons of LCE.
In 2021, it was estimated that that “contained lithium” production totaled 106k tons. Preliminary reported 2022 totals of “contained lithium” production was 130k tons, excluding U.S. production, which was negligible. Australia produced 61k tons of “contained lithium”; Chile, 39k tons; China, 19k tons; Argentina, 6.2k tons; and, Brazil, 2.2k tons.
Remember, producing the refined “contained lithium” doesn’t equate to producing the final manufactured product, such as actual battery packs. While China doesn’t produce a comparatively large amount of “contained lithium”, that does not disprove that China sells 70% of the world’s final products.
While Leila was not wrong to repeat what she heard, it appears that she was less right than she could have been.
In this setting, Leila presents as someone who is less interested in checking out the accuracy of what she heard and more interested in stoking fear among gullible FlaglerLive readers. Intellectual rigor is the key, Leila. I am not saying that I am an expert in this area, but I became a curious student through Leila’s comment. Thank you, Leila.
JOE D says
Sadly another moderate source of Lithium is….wait for it… Afghanistan! Let’s see how easy it would be to negotiate a manufacturing deal with the Taliban!
In THEORY I Agee with EV use…..I have a 2013 Prius C hybrid, with 55-64 mpg (works for best mileage in city at under 38-40 mph…that’s when the gas engine kicks in)
I plan on buying a hybrid plug in (42-45 mpg on battery alone) to replace my 18 yr old Toyota Sienna Van. I make several 2000 mile round trips/ year to
See relatives and friends…so an AFFORDABLE full EV would have me stopping every 250-350 miles for hours to get a full charge taking hours….that’s if the charging infrastructure is improved immensely! I think we are 25-30 Years out from a full EV practicality, but you have to start SOMEWHERE!
My Prius had only 2 sets of tires and a few oil changes in 10 years….128k miles. No timing chain replacement, only 1 accessories battery change ( because I wanted to…didn’t need to at 100k miles)
EV Batteries should last well over 200k miles if kept fan or liquid cooled
And hopefully “solid state” not liquid lithium will replace the current EV batteries, but that’s unfortunately years out!
I’ve owned a model S since 2021. A great car for just driving around town and up and down the road under a 100 miles. Forget those back road America scenic trips as chargers are still either not operational, or far and few between. We also maintain a F150 3.5 Eco boost and a Lexus ES350 ( 435 miles range) we take on trips since we can pretty much almost make it on one tank trip to Ashville. Our Model S is about 380 miles depending on traffic and interstate highway speed, hills, climate control. But with both you will need to stop, so might as well either get gas or charge up and get something to eat. The F150 with its 36 gal tank at 70-75 mph interstate speeds gets 450 mpg, not towing.. EV’s well, I say give them time, not for everyone regardless with the media or Govt thinks as the cost unless the govt offers some some unreal trade in program to push the grand scheme of things. . EV Trucks, just don’t have any range, yet. And forget about towing a construction trailer or boat as the miles per charge is still lacking, my dealer owner friends Lightning on loan proved that on a fishing trip to the Keys pulling a 20ft bay boat, 150 miles was it before we needed a charge. My gas F150 pulling the same boat to the Keys gets 12 mpg ( 36 gal tank) we got 421 miles before fill up..
@China, China, China — er uh, Ford
“Ford unveils new Lincoln Nautilus to be imported from China
Story by Michael Wayland • Yesterday 7:00 PM
Ford Motor will import its next-generation Lincoln Nautilus from China to the U.S., the company said Monday night.
The vehicle is currently produced for the U.S. at a Canadian plant, where the automaker recently announced it would be investing about $1.3 billion to transition the facility for EVs…”